Aliyah Bet & Machal Virtual Museum

 

Exodus

William (Bill) Bernstein

William Bernstein was born on 27th January 1923 in Passaic, New Jersey.  At the age of 13 his family moved to San Francisco.  He graduated from Galileo High School in San Francisco and attended Ohio State University.  Although entitled to a deferment from military service as a pre-medical student, he volunteered for the US Merchant Marines in World War II. He graduated from the Kings Point Merchant Marine Academy in 1944 as a second lieutenant. After the war, he received an appointment to the US Naval Academy at Annapolis, but volunteered for “Aliyah Bet” and served as second officer in July 1947 on the “Exodus,” which carried more than 4,500 Jewish men and women, survivors of the Holocaust from World War II displaced person camps to Palestine.

The night before the British captured the "Exodus," Bernstein told his shipmates about a premonition he'd had that he would die in the battle that lay ahead. On 18th July 1947, when the ship was 22 miles from its destination, the ship received a broadcasted message from the British destroyer “Pijax” to cease heading for the coast of Palestine.  The “Exodus” kept sailing on its course despite the warning, and the British attack was immediate.  Heavy machine gun fire was directed at the ship and two destroyers rammed into the “Exodus” from both sides. The first landing party boarded the ship and was bombarded with tins of preserves and potatoes by the passengers, with no effect. The British marines and sailors, armed with side-arms and clubs, attacked the passengers and crew and overcame their resistance.  They reached the bridge and viciously clubbed the “Exodus” captain, Second Officer Bernstein, and the helmsman.  Bernstein died almost immediately from his wounds.

The “Exodus” was then taken to Haifa, and the refugees forcibly transferred to three British Merchant ships, “Runnymeade Park,” “Ocean Vigour” and the “Empire Rival;” the refugees were then returned to Hamburg via Marseilles.

Bill Bernstein was buried in Martyrs' Row in the Haifa Cemetery.

Captain Yitzhak Aharonovitz of the refugee ship “Yetziat Europa 1947” described Bill in these words:  “Simple and direct of heart. He carried out his duties with enthusiasm and without a word of complaint for the more difficult tasks allotted over and above his duties.  Never once did he interfere with the refugee passengers or with their gaiety or their activities."

His name is included in the “Palmach Book."

Translated from the Yizkor website with additions by researcher Joe Woolf.

Exodus 1947: 70th Commemoration: Project Update

Exodus Baltimore Memorial

Congressman John P. Sarbanes of Maryland has entered into the U.S Congressional Record recognition of the famed Holocaust Rescue Ship, the Exodus 1947. (see copy below). The ship, out of Baltimore, was American funded and crewed.  Its historic voyage in running the British naval blockade of Palestine made it a foundation story of the modern State of Israel.  Ruth Gruber called the Exodus 1947, the "Ship that Launched a Nation". Nine other largely US manned ships sailed from the U.S. among the 66 ships that ran the British naval blockade to bring remnants of European Jewry to the shores of Eretz Israel between 1945 and 1948.

Seventy years have passed since July 18, 1947, when the battered Exodus 1947, with 4,454 Holocaust survivors on board, was towed into the port of Haifa by British destroyers that rammed her in international waters. The Second Officer, Bill Bernstein, was clubbed to death on the bridge by the British boarding detail when he refused to abandon the wheel.  He was the first Machalnik who gave his life in the struggle to establish the Jewish State.

This iconic episode in modern Jewish history will be remembered and honored at the AVILC Mickey Marcus Memorial taking place at West Point on May 7, 2017. Among the speakers  are Ambassador Dani Dayan, Consul General of Israel; Ambassador Vasilios Philippou, High Commissioner of the Republic of Cyprus; NYC DOC Commissioner Joseph Ponte and Mr. Jerry Klinger, President of JASHP. There will be an  exhibition portraying the “Aliyah Bet” or clandestine immigration that daringly confronted the British destroyers engaged in the naval blockade. There will also be a photo display of the refugees and crew apprehended by British authorities and shipped to internment camps on Cyprus.

This year being the 70th commemoration of Exodus 1947, the Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation (JASHP) and Jerry Klinger, its president have launched the Exodus Memorial Project. A permanent historical, informative sculpture memorializing the Exodus 1947 has been commissioned and will be sited with supportive panels in the plaza of the port of Haifa. Jerry Klinger was instrumental in the restoration of Bill Bernstein’s  grave site with honor and dignity in  a Haifa cemetery.

Our purpose is to remember and reaffirm the saga of the Ma’apala (Clandestine immigration) and to tell  the story of the Exodus 1947 as emblematic of the Aliyah Bet operation and the creation of the Jewish State.   A dedication ceremony is being organized to be held at the port of Haifa on July 18, 2017, the day Exodus 1947 docked seventy years ago.

Those planning to travel to Israel and attend the July 18 dedication of the memorial in Haifa are asked to please contact Donna Parker at donnakparker1@gmail.com

Those interested in knowing more about the Exodus Memorial project in Haifa may contact Jerry Klinger, President, Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation, directly at Jashp1@msn.com

Donna Parker

Rafi Marom

Si Spiegelman

 


 

Congressional Record, Jan. 24, 2017

HON. JOHN P. SARBANES

OF MARYLAND

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

Tuesday, January 24, 2017

Mr. SARBANES. Mr. Speaker, I rise today to recognize the extraordinary events surrounding the SS Exodus 1947, to which a historic memorial will be dedicated in the Port of Haifa in Israel this coming July.

The SS Exodus 1947, originally known as the President Warfield, was a passenger ship operating on the ‘‘Old Bay Line’’ between Baltimore, MD and Norfolk, VA. The ship served in that role for nearly 15 years before being repurposed during World War II, when it served both the Royal Navy and the United States Navy. Following the war, the ship returned to the U.S. and was placed in the Naval Reserve Fleet in Virginia, where it was to be sold for scrap.

Before the ship could be scrapped it was sold to the Haganah, the precursor to the Israel Defense Forces. The Haganah intended to use it, amongst 9 other ships, to evacuate displaced Jews from Europe to what was then Palestine, at the time under British Control. Before undertaking this mission the ship was towed to Baltimore, where it was refitted and crewed, primarily by volunteer Jewish-American ex-soldiers.

Once in Europe, the ship originally designed for 400 passengers was loaded with 4,454 Holocaust survivors and departed from the French Port of Se`te. The ship was intercepted in international waters by a task force of eight British Naval vessels and was boarded by Royal Marines. While the unarmed crew and passengers fought back with whatever could be turned into weapons, they were eventually overwhelmed and taken back to France and then to displaced persons camps in Germany on British prison ships.

The events on the Exodus garnered international media attention and are considered by historians to have played a role in the passage of United Nations Resolution 181, which established the State of Israel. The mayor of Haifa in 1950 dubbed the Exodus the ‘‘Ship that Launched a Nation.’’

Memorials and historical markers for the Exodus have been placed in the Baltimore Harbor, as well as France and Germany. I am proud of the small role that Baltimore played in these historic events and also commend the work of my constituent, Dr. Barry S. Lever, with the Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation to dedicate a memorial to the Exodus in Israel, and I congratulate them on their successful efforts.

 


 

Further reading:

1.  For reference information and lists of North American volunteers that served on the U.S-sourced Aliyah Bet ships, see Murray Greenfield’s The Jews’ Secret Fleet… (Gefen Publishing House).

2.  For a global perspective on all the Aliyah Bet ships (1938-1948) see Paul Silverstone’s Our Only Refuge; Open the Gates…. http://paulsilverstone.com/aliyah-bet-project/

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